The easiest programming languages ​​to learn in 2021

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Without further ado, in my opinion, these are the easiest languages ​​to learn ordered by ascending level of difficulty (from easiest to least easy)

Also, read this related article: Which programming language should I learn first as a beginner?


  • Python

    One of the characteristics of the Python language is that it is designed on the premise that explicit statements are always better than implicit statements. This means that all Python programs are very clear when it comes to communicating exactly what is happening in the program to the programmer, without the need to write comments.

    Many Anglo-Saxon universities use Python to teach programming because reading Python programs is almost like reading sentences in English. The fact that the programming language forces programmers to indent the code, makes programs look organized and can immediately detect which set of instructions are independent of another set of instructions. So if want to see the complete uses of Python programming language then you should visit here. 

    Another of Python's philosophies is that ideally there should be one, and only one, way of doing things. This is a great advantage for newcomers, as there is no room for ambiguity in language.

  • Ruby

    In my opinion, Ruby is the closest language to human language and it is precisely what makes it easy to learn. It is an incredibly consistent language with its design, that with just spending a few days using language, you will immediately notice that you already remember a considerable number of functions and special words of the language, without having to look at the documentation. It is a very natural and beginner-friendly language.

    In addition to being a very intuitive language, Ruby literally took the best of a diverse number of very robust programming languages ​​(Perl, Smalltalk, LISP), improved the semantics of the language, and Yukihiro Matsumoto (creator of Ruby) ended up creating a programming language. incredibly powerful and easy to learn.

    However, Ruby was created with the "happiness" of the programmer in mind. That means that from the beginning it was conceived as a programming language designed for people who already knew how to program. Ruby is a multi-paradigm language; which means that it provides support for objects, procedural programming, functional programming, etc. However, almost everything in Ruby is an object, so a person totally new to the world of programming can become a bit confused with all the lingo that object-oriented programming entails.

Also, read this related article: Most popular programming languages | 8 most popular languages

  • JavaScript

    Javascript is a relatively easy language to learn. Although many detractors of the language have very good arguments about the design of the language, in my opinion, I still think that it is an easy language to learn and is one of the programming languages ​​that offer you immediate gratification.

    With immediate gratification, I mean that Javascript was initially conceived as a programming language for building interactive websites. Therefore, in a relatively short time, you can start creating interesting (and useful) projects and you will start solving real problems almost immediately. Unlike other languages, such as Python or Ruby, where you generally start to write the typical programs to add 2 numbers or order a list. In Javascript, you usually start writing programs that do animations, add special effects, create interactive web pages, and so on.  Also, read this related article: 5 Programming Languages ​​To Learn To Program in 2021 

    The disadvantage of Javascript is that it is a language whose execution model is difficult to understand. Javascript is an event-driven language, that is, it reacts to things that happen within the context of the language. For example in Python or Ruby, instructions are executed one after another; whereas in Javascript, that scenario is not always true. There are times when you have two contiguous blocks of code, but the second block executes before the first, or simply and simply never executes. So it is frustrating for a beginner to fail to understand exactly what is happening in their programs.

    On the other hand, Javascript has this characteristic that not all Internet browsers interpret the language in the same way. In other words, the Javascript that Internet Explorer understands is not necessarily the same Javascript that Firefox interprets. This scenario can cause a lot of confusion for beginners and can lead to abandoning programming due to frustration.

    To add even more confusion to the Javascript issue, a platform called Node.js was recently developed, or node for short. Node is not a programming language. The programming language is Javascript.

    Historically Javascript had been a programming language exclusive to the Internet browser. However, a group of programmers saw the benefits of a programming language like Javascript to perform server-side tasks in a super fast and efficient way, and decided to create a platform that would allow running Javascript on the server-side; and that's how Node.js was born

    Although the Javascript of Node.js is syntactically the same as the Javascript of the Internet browser; programs written for Node.js are not compatible with programs written for internet browsers and vice versa.

    However, regardless of the "flavor" of Javascript you choose. If you plan to dedicate yourself to the world of web development, you will invariably have to learn Javascript.


  • PHP

    PHP is a language with many detractors and with good reason; the inconsistency of the programming language is incredibly frustrating. Although the learning curve is relatively low, and it is also one of those languages ​​of immediate gratification (getting results and solving real problems relatively quickly), the syntax of the language tends to be somewhat complicated and sometimes confusing for those who are new to programming.

    For example, in PHP all variables have to start with a $ symbol (dollar sign) and each line has to end with a; (semicolon).

    Using single quotes (') is not the same as using double quotes (").

    When you want to join two text strings you have to use a period (.), But if you want to add two numbers you have to use a plus symbol (+).

    The inconsistency in the nomenclature of the functions makes the language unintuitive. For example, there are functions to determine if a variable is of a certain data type and those functions come in the form is_intis_stris_floatHowever, if you want to determine if a variable exists the function name is is_set (there is no underscore), and examples like that abound in the language, which makes memorizing the language more difficult.

    However, the language itself is not as bad as naysayers often paint it, and once you get used to the inconsistencies of the language, PHP is relatively simple and powerful for building robust web applications. On the other hand, you cannot ignore that there are more than 200 million sites on the Internet that are written in PHP. That means that PHP has a pretty big job market.


  • Java

    So far we have seen weakly typed languages; that means that the interpreter of the programming language does not force the programmer to declare if a variable is numeric or is a text string.

    Java is a strongly typed language; This means that Java forces the programmer to declare the type of data that a variable is going to contain, before being able to create the program.

    Furthermore, Java is by design a 100% object-oriented language. In other words, absolutely everything you do in Java has to be declared within a class, the same thing that makes the programmer have to learn everything related to object-oriented programming, in order to understand exactly how programs are executed in Java.

    The language itself is not difficult to understand, it is a very mature language and it is another of the immediate gratification languages. One can immediately start writing portable programs that can run on virtually any computer in the world, mobile or embedded devices. One can create desktop applications relatively quickly, and a lot of other things.

    One of the things a Java beginner has to understand is that Java programs have to go through a compilation process that Python, Ruby, PHP, Javascript programs generally don't. That is to say that when you finish a project in Java, on the one hand, you have the source code of your program and on the other, you have a JAR file that is all the code of your program, compiled in JVM bytecode ready to be executed by the virtual machine of Java (JVM).


  • C / C ++

    C and C ++ are two different programming languages, but for practical purposes, many people refer to them as C / C ++.

    C is a programming language invented by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson in 1972; C ++ is a programming language invented by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983.

    Both languages ​​have inspired the design and development of countless programming languages. For example, Java and PHP have adopted practices from these languages ​​to incorporate them directly into their design. For example, the use of semicolons to delimit the end of instructions or the use of curly braces ({}) to delimit blocks of code.

    And I mention them at the end of this list not because they are difficult to learn - after all I learned to program in C when I was 12 years old. However, they are relatively more difficult to learn than Python.

    To begin with, both languages ​​are strongly typed, so compilers force programmers to declare the type of variables that they are going to use in their programs. Since both programming languages ​​offer mechanisms to control the computer directly, the programmer ideally needs to know how a computer works as a whole in order to take advantage of C / C ++.

    For example, it is very useful to know perfectly how RAM works, so that you can make efficient use of pointers in C. Pointers in C are used to read and write directly to the memory of your computer, which is frequently a two-edged sword.

    However, in my opinion, I think that anyone who wants to dedicate himself to Software Engineering professionally, at some point in his career has to write C programs. Although not full time, at least not ignore the existence and operation of these languages. Although both languages ​​are the parents of many modern languages, there is still much to learn from these wonderful pieces of technology  the easiest programming languages ​​to learn in 2021. 


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